- 829-839: Egbert of England ca 770-839
- 839-858: Aethelwulf of England 795/800-858
- 856-858: Aethelwulf of England 795/800-858
- 858-860: Aethelbald of England +860
- 860-866: Aethelberht of England +866
- 865-871: Aethelred of England /843-871
- 871-899: Alfred the Great of England (Saint Alfred) ca 849-899
- 899-924: Edward I the Elder of England 871/872-924
- 978-1016: Ethelred II d'Angleterre 968-1016
- 1013-1014: Svend Ier Tveskæg de Danemark +1014
- 1016-1035: Knud Ier den Store de Danemark 985-1035
- 1035-1040: Harold I Harefoot +1040
- 1040-1042: Hardeknud de Danemark 1018-1042
- 1042-1066: Edward III the Confessor d'Angleterre 1004-1066
- 1057-1066: Edgar II Aetheling d'Angleterre 1051-1125
- 1066-1087: William I The Conqueror de Normandie 1027-1087
- 1087-1100: William II Rufus de Normandie 1056/1060-1100
- 1100-1135: Henry I Beauclerc de Normandie 1068-1135
- 1135-1154: Stephen de Blois ca 1097-1154
- 1154-1189: Henry II Courtemanche Plantagenêt 1133-1189
- 1170-1183: Henry The Young Plantagenêt 1155-1183
- 1189-1199: Richard I Coeur de Lion Plantagenêt 1157-1199
- 1199-1199: Arthur Ier le Posthume Plantagenêt 1186-1203
- 1199-1216: John I Sans Terre Plantagenêt 1167-1216
- 1216-1272: Henry III de Winchester Plantagenêt 1207-1272
- 1272-1307: Edward I Longshanks Plantagenêt 1239-1307
- 1307-1327: Edward II Caernarvon Plantagenêt 1284-1327
- 1327-1377: Edward III of Windsor Plantagenêt 1312-1377
- 1377-1399: Richard II de Bordeaux Plantagenêt 1367-1400
- 1399-1413: Henry IV of Bolingbroke Plantagenêt 1366-1413
- 1413-1422: Henri V de Monmouth Plantagenêt 1387-1422
- 1422-1461: Henri VI de Windsor Plantagenêt 1421-1471
- 1461-1470: Edward IV of Rouen of York 1442-1483
- 1470-1471: Henri VI de Windsor Plantagenêt 1421-1471
- 1471-1483: Edward IV of Rouen of York 1442-1483
- 1483-1483: Édouard V du Sanctuaire of York 1470-1483
- 1483-1485: Richard III of Fotheringhay of York 1452-1485
- 1485-1509: Henry VII Tudor 1457-1509
- 1509-1547: Henry VIII Tudor 1491-1547
- 1603-1625: James I Stuart 1566-1625
- 1625-1649: Charles I Stuart 1600-1649
- 1660-1685: Charles II Stuart 1630-1685
- 1685-1688: James II Stuart 1633-1701
- 1689-1702: William III van Oranje-Nassau (Guillaume III d'Orange) 1650-1702
- 1066-1083: Mathilde de Flandre ca 1032-1083
- 1100-1118: Mathilda of Scotland (Sainte Mathilde) ca 1080-1118
- 1141-1141: Mathilde de Normandie (Empress Matilda) 1102-1167
- 1154-1189: Aliénor d'Aquitaine 1122-1204
- 1170-1183: Marguerite Capet 1158-ca 1198
- 1200-1216: Isabelle d'Angoulême 1186-1246
- 1299-1307: Marguerite Capet 1282-1318
- 1308-1327: Isabelle Capet 1292-1358
- 1328-1369: Philippa d'Avesnes ca 1314-1369
- 1382-1394: Anne de Luxembourg 1366-1394
- 1396-1399: Isabelle de Valois 1389-1409
- 1403-1413: Jeanne d'Évreux 1370-1437
- 1420-1422: Catherine de Valois 1401-1437
- 1445-1461: Marguerite d'Anjou 1430-1482
- 1464-1470: Elizabeth Woodville ca 1437-1492
- 1470-1471: Marguerite d'Anjou 1430-1482
- 1471-1483: Elizabeth Woodville ca 1437-1492
- 1486-1503: Elizabeth of York ca 1465-1503
- 1509-1533: Catherine of Aragon de Castilla y Aragón 1485-1536
- 1533-1536: Anne Boleyn ca 1501-1536
- 1536-1537: Jane Seymour 1509-1537
- 1540-1540: Anne of Cleves von Kleve 1515-1557
- 1540-1542: Katherine Howard ca 1521-1542
- 1543-1547: Katherine Parr 1512-1548
- 1553-1553: Jane Grey 1537-1554
- 1553-1558: Mary I Tudor 1516-1558
- 1558-1603: Elisabeth I Tudor 1533-1603
- 1603-1619: Anne von Oldenburg 1574-1619
- 1625-1649: Henriette-Marie de Bourbon 1609-1669
- 1662-1685: Catarina de Bragança 1638-1705
- 1689-1694: Mary II Stuart 1662-1694
- 1702-1707: Anne Stuart 1665-1714
- 1683-1737: Caroline von Hohenzollern
- 1714-1727: George I von Hannover 1660-1727
- 1727-1760: George II von Hannover 1683-1760
- 1760-1820: George III von Hannover 1738-1820
- 1820-1830: George IV von Hannover 1762-1830
- 1830-1837: William IV von Hannover 1765-1837
- 1901-1910: Edward VII von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha 1841-1910
- 1936-1936: Eduardo VIII Windsor 1894-1972
- 1707-1714: Anne Stuart 1665-1714
- 1837-1901: Victoria von Hannover 1819-1901
- 1867-1953: Mary Cambrige von Württemberg (Queen Mary)
- 1952: Elizabeth II Windsor 1926-
George V Windsor
|Duke of York (1892-1901), Prince of Wales (1901-1910), King of Great Britan (1910-1936), King of Ireland (1910-1922), King of North Ireland(1922-1936), Emperor of India (1910-1936), King of The British Dominions Beyond The Seas, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha|
(George von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha)
(George Windsor 1917)
(George Frederick Ernest Albert Windsor)
- Edward VII von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha, King of Great Britain 1841-1910
- Alexandra von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Prinsesse af Danmark 1844-1925
Casamientos e hijos
- Casado el 6 de julio 1893, London, con Mary Cambrige von Württemberg (Queen Mary), Prinsessin von Teck 1867-1953, con
George VI Windsor
|Duke of York, Earl of Inverness, King of Great Britan y of The British Dominions Beyond The Seas, Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha|
(Albert von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha)
(Albert Windsor 1917)
- George V Windsor, King of Great Britan 1865-1936
- Mary Cambrige von Württemberg (Queen Mary), Prinsessin von Teck 1867-1953
Casamientos e hijos
- Casado el 26 de abril 1923, Westminster Abbey, London England, con Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Queen Mother), Lady 1900-2002, con
- Frederik VIII von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, Konge af Danmark 1843-1912
- Victoria von Hannover, Queen of Great Britain 1819-1901
Elizabeth II Windsor
|Queen of Great Britain y of North Ireland (6 de febrero 1952), Queen of The British Dominions Beyond The Seas, Princess of Great Britain,Prinzessin von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha|
(Elizabeth von Sachsen-Coburg und Gotha)
(Elizabeth Windsor 1917)
(Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor)
- George VI Windsor, King of Great Britan 1895-1952
- Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon (Queen Mother), Lady 1900-2002
Casamientos e hijos
- Casada el 20 de noviembre 1947 con Philip Mountbatten, Duke of Edinburgh 1921-, con
- Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen independent states and their overseas territories and dependencies. Though she holds each crown and title separately and equally, she is resident in and most directly involved with the United Kingdom, her oldest realm, over parts of whose territories her ancestors have reigned for more than a thousand years. She ascended its throne (along with several others) in February 1952.In addition to the United Kingdom, Elizabeth II is also Queen of Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Jamaica, Barbados, the Bahamas, Grenada, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Antigua and Barbuda, Belize, and Saint Kitts and Nevis, in each of which she is represented by a Governor-General. The 16 countries of which she is Queen are known as Commonwealth Realms, and their combined population (including dependencies) is over 129 million. (For further information, see Commonwealth Realm monarchies.) In practice she herself wields almost no political power in any of her realms.
Elizabeth holds a variety of other positions, among them Head of the Commonwealth, Supreme Governor of the Church of England, Lord of Mann, and Paramount Chief of Fiji. Her long reign has seen sweeping changes in her realms and the world at large, perhaps most notably the final dissolution of the former British Empire (a process that began in the last years of father's reign) and the consequent evolution of the modern Commonwealth of Nations.
Since 1947, Elizabeth has been married to Philip Mountbatten, born a prince of Greece and Denmark but by then a naturalised British citizen and Duke of Edinburgh. To date the couple have four children and seven grandchildren.
Elizabeth became Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan and Ceylon upon the death of her father, George VI, on 6 February 1952. As other colonies of the British Empire (now the Commonwealth of Nations) attained independence from the UK during her reign, she acceded to the newly created thrones as Queen of each respective realm so that throughout her 55 years on the throne she has been Monarch of 32 nations, half of which either subsequently adopted other royal houses or became republics.
Thanks to this 55-year-long reign, she is currently one of the longest-reigning monarchs of the UK or any of its predecessor states, ranking behind Victoria (who reigned over the UK for sixty-three years), George III (who reigned over Great Britain and subsequently the UK for fifty-nine), James VI (who reigned over Scotland for fifty-seven years), and Henry III (who reigned over England for fifty-six).
She is one of only two people who are simultaneously head of state of more than one independent nation. (The other is the President of France, who is ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra.)
Following tradition, she is also styled Duke of Lancaster and Duke of Normandy. She is also Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of many of her realms (and Lord Admiral of the United Kingdom), and is styled Defender of the Faith in various realms for differing reasons.
Elizabeth was born at 17 Bruton Street, in Mayfair, London, on 21 April 1926. Her father was Prince Albert, Duke of York (the future King George VI) and her mother was the Duchess of York (born Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, later Queen Elizabeth, and, after her daughter's accession to the throne, the Queen Mother).
She was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace by Cosmo Gordon Lang, the Archbishop of York. Her godparents were her paternal grandparents King George V and Queen Mary, the Princess Royal, the Duke of Connaught, her maternal grandfather the Earl of Strathmore, and Lady Elphinstone.
Elizabeth was named after her mother, while her two middle names are those of her paternal great-grandmother, Queen Alexandra, and grandmother, Queen Mary, respectively. As a child her close family knew her as "Lilibet". Her grandmother Queen Mary doted on her and George V found her very entertaining. At 10 years old, the young Princess was introduced to a preacher at Glamis Castle. As he left, he promised to send her a book. Elizabeth replied, "Not about God. I already know all about Him."
Princess Elizabeth's only sibling was the late Princess Margaret, who was born in 1930. The two young princesses were educated at home, under the supervision of their mother. Their governess was Marion Crawford, better known as "Crawfie." She studied history with C. H. K. Marten, Provost of Eton, and also learned modern languages; she speaks French fluently. She was instructed in religion by the Archbishop of Canterbury and has remained a devout member of the Church of England.
As a granddaughter of the British sovereign in the male line, she held the title of a British princess with the style Her Royal Highness, her full style being Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth of York. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle the Prince of Wales, and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, there was no reason at the time to believe that she would ever become queen, as it was widely assumed that the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VIII) would marry and have children in due course. However, Edward did not produce any legitimate heirs, and Elizabeth's parents had no sons (who would have taken precedence over her). Therefore, she would eventually have become queen whether Edward had abdicated or not, assuming she outlived both her father and her uncle.
When her father became King in 1936 upon the abdication of her uncle, King Edward VIII, she became Heiress Presumptive and was thenceforth known as Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth. There was some demand in Wales for her to be created The Princess of Wales, but the King was advised that this was the title of the wife of the Prince of Wales, not a title in its own right. Some feel the King missed the opportunity to make an innovation in Royal practice by re-adopting King Henry VIII's idea, who proclaimed his eldest daughter, Lady Mary, Princess of Wales in her own right But the possibility, however remote, remained that her father could have a son, who would have been heir apparent, supplanting Elizabeth in the line of succession to the throne.
Elizabeth was thirteen years old when World War II broke out, and she and her younger sister, Princess Margaret, were evacuated to Windsor Castle, Berkshire. There was some suggestion that the two princesses be evacuated to Canada, to which their mother made the famous reply: "The children won't go without me. I won't leave the King. And the King will never leave." While at Windsor, Princess Elizabeth and her sister staged pantomimes at Christmas with the children of members of staff of the Royal Household. In 1940, Princess Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the BBC's Children's Hour, addressing other children who had been evacuated. When she was 13 years old, she first met her future husband Prince Philip. She fell in love with him and began writing to him when he was in the Royal Navy.
Elizabeth made her first official overseas visit in 1947, when she accompanied her parents to South Africa. During her visit to Cape Town, she and her father were accompanied by Prime Minister Jan Smuts when they went to the top of Table Mountain by cable car. On her 21st birthday, she made a broadcast to the British Commonwealth and Empire, pledging: "I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong."
In 1945, Princess Elizabeth convinced her father that she should be allowed to contribute directly to the war effort. She joined the Women's Auxiliary Territorial Service, where she was known as No 230873 Second Subaltern Elizabeth Windsor, trained as a driver, and drove a military truck while she served. This training was the first time she had been taught together with other students. It is said that she greatly enjoyed this and that this experience led her to send her own children to school rather than have them educated at home. She was later praised by many for her hard labour during the war period. She was the first, and so far only, female member of the royal family to actually serve in the armed forces, though Queen Victoria was Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian militia, and other royal women have been given honorary ranks. During the VE Day celebrations in London, she and her sister dressed in ordinary clothing and slipped into the crowd secretly to celebrate with everyone.
Elizabeth married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark) on 20 November 1947. The couple are second cousins once removed: they are both descended from Christian IX of Denmark - Elizabeth II is a great-great-granddaughter through her paternal great-grandmother Alexandra of Denmark, and the Duke is a great-grandson through his paternal grandfather George I of Greece. As well as second cousins once removed, the couple are third cousins: they share Queen Victoria as a great-great-grandmother. Elizabeth's great-grandfather was Edward VII, while Edward's sister Alice, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine was the Duke's great-grandmother. Prince Philip had renounced his claim to the Greek throne and was simply referred to as Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten before being created Duke of Edinburgh prior to their marriage. As a Greek royal, Philip is a member of the house of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, the Danish royal house and a line of the House of Oldenburg. Mountbatten was an Anglicisation of his mother's name, Battenberg. The marriage was controversial. Philip was Greek Orthodox, with no financial resources behind him, and had sisters who had married Nazi supporters. Elizabeth's mother was reported in later biographies to have strongly opposed the marriage, even referring to Philip as "the Hun".
After their wedding, Philip and Elizabeth took up residence at Clarence House, London. At various times between 1946 and 1953, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. Lord Mountbatten of Burma had purchased the Villa Gwardamangia (also referred to as the Villa G'Mangia), in the hamlet of Gwardamangia in Malta, in about 1929. Princess Elizabeth stayed there when visiting Philip in Malta. Philip and Elizabeth lived in Malta for a period between 1949 and 1951 (Malta being the only other country in which the Queen has lived, although at that time Malta was a British Protectorate).
On 14 November 1948, Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, Charles. Several weeks earlier, letters patent had been issued so that her children would enjoy a royal and princely status they would not otherwise have been entitled to. Otherwise they would have been styled merely as children of a duke. The couple had four children (see below) in all. Though the Royal House is named Windsor, it was decreed, via a 1960 Order-in-Council, that those descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip who were not Princes or Princesses of the United Kingdom should have the personal surname Mountbatten-Windsor. In practice all of their children, in honour of their father, have used Mountbatten-Windsor as their surname (or in Anne's case, her maiden surname). Both Charles and Anne used Mountbatten-Windsor as their surname in the published banns for their first marriages. The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh have four children.
Her father's health declined during 1951, and Elizabeth was soon frequently standing in for him at public events. She visited Greece, Italy and Malta (where Philip was then stationed) during that year. In October, she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C. In January, 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand. They had reached Kenya when word arrived of the death of her father, on 6 February 1952, from lung cancer.
Elizabeth was staying at the Treetops Hotel in Thika (today just two hours away from Nairobi) when she was told of her father's death and of her own succession to the throne a unique circumstance for any such event. She was the first British monarch since the accession of George I to be outside the country at the moment of succession, and also the first in modern times not to know the exact time of her accession (because her father had died in his sleep at an unknown time). On the night her father died, the Chief Justice of Kenya Sir Horace Hearne, who would later accompany the Royal Party back to the UK, escorted the Princess Elizabeth, as she then was, to a dinner at the Treetops Hotel, which is now a very popular tourist retreat in Kenya. It was there that she "went up a princess and came down a Queen."
It was Prince Philip who broke the news of her father's death to Elizabeth. After that, Martin Charteris, then Assistant Private Secretary to the new Queen, asked her what she intended to be called. "Why, my own name; what else?" she replied. The royal party returned immediately to the United Kingdom.
Elizabeth was proclaimed as Queen in Canada first, by the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, on 6 February, 1952. Her British proclamation was read at St James's Palace the following day.
One year later, the Queen's grandmother, Queen Mary, died of lung cancer on 24 March 1953. Reportedly, the Dowager Queen's dying wish was that the coronation not be postponed. Elizabeth's coronation took place in Westminster Abbey, on 2 June 1953. Her coronation gown, commissioned from Norman Hartnell, was embroidered with the floral emblems of the countries of the Commonwealth: the Tudor rose of England, the Scots thistle, the Welsh leek, shamrock of Ireland, wattle of Australia, the maple leaf of Canada, the New Zealand fern, South Africa's protea, two lotus flowers for India and Ceylon, and Pakistan's wheat, cotton and jute.
After the Coronation, Elizabeth and Philip moved to Buckingham Palace, in central London, the main official residence of the monarch. It has been reported, however, that, as with many of her predecessors, she dislikes the Palace as a residence and considers Windsor Castle, another official residence, to be her home.
Not long after, Elizabeth and Philip, from 1953 to 1954, made a six-month, around the world tour, becoming the first monarch to circumnavigate the globe. She also became the first reigning monarch of Australia, New Zealand and Fiji to visit those nations. Since then, Elizabeth has undertaken many overseas voyages. In October, 1957, she made a state visit to the United States, addressing the United Nations General Assembly, and proceeded to tour Canada, wherein she became the first Canadian Monarch to open a session of that nation's parliament. In made another state visit to the United States, as Queen of Canada, hosting the return dinner for President Dwight D. Eisenhower at the Canadian Embassy in Washington. In February, 1961, she visited Ankara, and later toured India, Iran, Pakistan and Nepal for the first time. She has made state visits to most European countries and to many outside Europe. In 1991 she became the first British monarch to address a joint session of the United States Congress during another state visit to that country, and in 2007 became the first British monarch to address the Virginia State Assembly. She has also regularly attended Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings since the practice was established in Canada in 1973. All-together, Elizabeth is the most widely-travelled head of state in history.
The British Empire began its metamorphosis following the Balfour Declaration at the Imperial Conference of 1926, followed by the formalization of the declaration in the Statute of Westminster, 1931.
By the time of Elizabeth's accession in 1952, there was much talk of a "new Elizabethan age." Since then, one of Elizabeth's roles has been to preside over the United Kingdom as it has shared world economic and military power with a growing host of independent nations and principalities. As nations have developed economically and culturally, the Queen has witnessed, over the past 50 years, a gradual transformation of the British Empire into its modern successor, the Commonwealth of Nations. She has worked hard to maintain links with former British possessions, and in some cases, such as South Africa, she has played an important role in retaining or restoring good relations.
In 2007, it was discovered in declassified papers that in 1956 French Prime Minister Guy Mollet and British Prime Minister Sir Anthony Eden discussed the possibility of France joining in a union with the United Kingdom; amongst the ideas put forward was having Elizabeth II as the French head of state. A paper from 28 September 1956, stated that Mollet "had not thought there need be difficulty over France accepting the headship of Her Majesty." This proposal was never accepted, and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome.
Elizabeth is a conservative in matters of religion, moral standards and family matters. She has a strong sense of religious duty and takes her Coronation Oath seriously. This is one reason (as well as the example set by her uncle who abdicated) why it is considered highly unlikely that she will ever abdicate. For years, she refused to acknowledge Prince Charles's relationship with Camilla Parker-Bowles, but since their marriage, an appearance of acceptance has been established.
Elizabeth has shown a strong constitution in the face of turmoil; for example, during a trip to Ghana in 1961 she pointedly refused to keep her distance from the then President, Kwame Nkrumah, despite the fact that he was a target for assassins. Harold Macmillan wrote at the time: "the Queen has been absolutely determined all through. She is impatient of the attitude towards her to treat her as a film star... She has indeed 'the heart and stomach of a man'... She loves her duty and means to be a Queen." One author describes another incident thus: "a similar situation occurred in 1964, when the Queen was invited to Quebec, according to Robert Speaight in Vanier, Soldier, Diplomat and Governor General: A Biography. There were fears for the Queen s safety, while the media whipped up a campaign of fear around the risks involved from separatist threats, and there was talk of cancelling the tour. The Queen s Private Secretary replied that the Queen would have been horrified to have been prevented from going because of the activities of extremists." Further, during the Trooping the Colour in 1981 there was an apparent attempt on the Queen's life: six rounds of blanks were fired at her from close range as she rode down The Mall. Her only reaction was to duck slightly and then continue on. The Canadian House of Commons was so impressed by her display of courage that a motion was passed praising her composure.
As a constitutional monarch, Elizabeth does not express her personal political opinions publicly. She has maintained this discipline throughout her reign, doing little in public to reveal what they might be, and thus her political views are not clearly known. However, there is some evidence to suggest that, in economic terms, she leans towards a One Nation point of view. During Margaret Thatcher's years as British Prime Minister, it was rumoured that the Queen worried that Mrs. Thatcher's economic policies were fostering social divisions, and she was reportedly alarmed by high unemployment, a series of riots in 1981, and the violence of the miners' strike. Mrs. Thatcher once said to Brian Walden, referring to the Social Democratic Party: "The problem is, the Queen is the kind of woman who could vote SDP."
While not speaking directly against Quebec sovereignty in Canada, she has publicly praised Canada's unity and expressed her wish to see the continuation of a unified Canada, sometimes courting controversy over the matter. Like her mother, Elizabeth has shown an affection for Canada, stating in 1983, when departing California, "I am going home to Canada tomorrow," and at a dinner in Saskatchewan in 2005: "this country and Canadians everywhere have been a constant presence in my life and work." She has also stated that Canada feels like "a home away from home."
In a speech to the Quebec Legislature, at the height of the Quiet Revolution of 1964, she ignored the national controversy (including riots during her appearance in Quebec City see History of Monarchy in Canada) in favour of praising Canada's two "complementary cultures", speaking, in both French and English, about the strength of Canada's two founding peoples, stating, "I am pleased to think that there exists in our Commonwealth a country where I can express myself officially in French," and, "whenever you sing [the French words of] 'O Canada' you are reminded that you come of a proud race."
After she proclaimed the Constitution Act in 1982, which was the first time in Canadian history that a major constitutional change had been made without the agreement of the government of Quebec, Elizabeth attempted to demonstrate her position as head of the whole Canadian nation, and her role as conciliator, by privately expressing to journalists her regret that Quebec was not part of the settlement.
On 18 November 1965, the Governor of Rhodesia, Sir Humphrey Vicary Gibbs, was made a Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order, an honour in the personal gift of the Queen, a week after Ian Smith had made his Unilateral Declaration of Independence. Gibbs was intensely loyal to Rhodesia, and, although he had refused to accept the UDI, the award was criticised by some as badly timed. Others praised it as indicating support for her Rhodesian representative in the face of an illegal action by her Rhodesian prime minister.
During an event in Westminster Hall marking her Silver Jubilee, in 1977, Elizabeth stated, "I cannot forget that I was crowned Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland." This reference came at a time when the Labour government was attempting to introduce a controversial devolution policy to Scotland and Wales, and was interpreted as opposition to devolution. She has spoken in favour of the continued union of England and Scotland, angering some Scottish nationalists. Her statement of praise for the Northern Ireland Belfast Agreement raised some complaints among some Unionists (who were traditionally strong monarchists). Ian Paisley, leader of the rightwing Democratic Unionist Party and founder of the evangelical Free Presbyterian church, famously broke with Unionism's traditional deference for the British Crown by calling the Queen "a parrot" of Tony Blair. He suggested that her support for the Belfast Agreement would weaken the monarchy's standing amongst Northern Irish Protestants, a substantial number of whom remained opposed to certain parts of the Agreement. However, Paisley's criticism of the Queen on this matter was rejected by more traditional and moderate unionists.
Elizabeth, as the Monarch of the United Kingdom, is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England and sworn protector of the Church of Scotland. Elizabeth holds no religious role as Sovereign of the other Realms.
The Queen takes a keen personal interest in the Church of England, but, in practice, delegates authority in the Church of England to the Archbishop of Canterbury. She regularly worships at St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle, or at St. Mary Magdalene Church when staying at Sandringham House, Norfolk.
The Royal Family also regularly attends services at Crathie Kirk when holidaying at Balmoral Castle, and when in residence at the Palace of Holyroodhouse, the family attends services at the Canongate Kirk. The Queen has attended the annual General Assembly of the Church of Scotland on several occasions, most recently in 1977 and 2002, although, in most years, she appoints a Lord High Commissioner to represent her.
The Queen made particular reference to her Christian convictions in her Christmas Day television broadcast in 2000, in which she spoke about the theological significance of the Millennium as marking the 2000th anniversary of the birth of Jesus Christ: "To many of us, our beliefs are of fundamental importance. For me, the teachings of Christ, and my own personal accountability before God provide a framework in which I try to lead my life. I, like so many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example."
Elizabeth often meets with leaders from other religions as well. She is Patron of the Council of Christians and Jews in the UK.
The Jubilee year coincided with the deaths, within a few months, of Elizabeth's mother and sister. Elizabeth's relations with her children have become much warmer since these deaths. She is particularly close to her daughter-in-law, Sophie, The Countess of Wessex and is very close to her grandchildren, noticeably Prince William, Princess Beatrice and Zara Phillips.
In late February 2003, the Queen's reign, then just over 51 years, surpassed the reigns of all four of her immediate predecessors combined (Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII and George VI). She is currently the second-longest-serving head of state in the world, after King Bhumibol of Thailand (fourth if one includes the rulers of the subnational entity Ras Al Khaimah and of the Government of Tibet in Exile), and the fourth-longest serving British or English monarch. Her reign of over half a century has seen eleven different Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom and numerous Prime Ministers in the Commonwealth Realms.
In June 2005, she was forced to cancel several engagements after contracting what the Palace described as a bad cold. Nonetheless, the Queen has been described as being in excellent health, and is seldom ill.
In October 2006, she suffered a burst blood vessel in her right eye, causing her entire eye to appear deep red in colour. While the palace would not comment on the Queen's condition, medical experts stated that the Queen would be in no pain and that her eye would heal within a week or two with no lasting damage. They also stated that blood vessel bursts are common amongst the elderly, but can also be a sign of high blood pressure. Later that month, on 26 October, she was due officially to open the new Emirates Stadium, the home of Arsenal F.C., but she was forced to cancel the engagement due to a strained back muscle that had troubled her since the end of her Balmoral holiday. Her back troubles appear to be ongoing. There was serious concern in November, 2006 that she wouldn't be well enough to open Parliament, and plans were drawn up to cover her possible absence. However, she was able to attend. The following month, the Queen faced more rumours that she was in declining health when she was seen in public with a plaster on her right hand. The positioning of the plaster seemed to suggest that the Queen may have been fitted with an intravenous drip. Medical experts suggest that given her back troubles and age she may be suffering from osteoporosis. Buckingham Palace refused comment. However, it was later revealed that the plaster was as a result of one of her corgis biting her hand as she separated two fighting pets
If she survives until 21 December 2007, attaining the age of 81 years and 244 days, she will become the longest-lived monarch in British history.
In 1977, Elizabeth celebrated her Silver Jubilee, marking the 25th anniversary of her accession to the Throne. The occasion was marked by a royal procession in the golden state coach and a service of thanksgiving at St. Paul's Cathedral attended by dignitaries and heads of state. Millions watched events on television and numerous public street parties were held across the UK to mark the occasion, culminating in several "Jubilee Days" held in June. A special first day cover of stamps was also printed. This was also the occasion for the punk rock band Sex Pistols to release their second single "God Save the Queen", which was considered by many to be highly offensive, and was banned from BBC.
In 1979 the Jubilee Line of the London Underground was also retrospectively renamed in honour of the anniversary, and several other locations and public spaces were named to commemorate the Jubilee, including the Jubilee Gardens in London's South Bank.
In 2002, Elizabeth celebrated her Golden Jubilee, marking the 50th anniversary of her accession to the Throne. The year saw an extensive tour of the Commonwealth Realms, including the first ever pop concert in the gardens of Buckingham Palace, and as had been held in 1977, a service of thanksgiving took place at St. Paul's Cathedral. Public celebrations in the UK were more muted than they had been 25 years previously, in part because earlier the same year both the Queen's mother and sister had died, and in part due to changing public attitudes towards the monarchy. However, street parties and commemorative events were still organised in many areas.
If both the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh are still alive on 20 November 2007, the Queen will become the first monarch to celebrate a Diamond wedding anniversary.
On Friday, 21 April 2006, the Queen turned 80, making her the third-oldest reigning monarch (and fourth-oldest ruler) in British and Commonwealth history. She has begun to hand over some public duties to her children, as well as to other members of the Royal Family, and in early 2006, reports began to surface that the Queen planned to reduce her official duties significantly, though she has made it clear that she has no intention of abdicating. The 2007 State Visit to the United States tends to show this to be an unfounded rumour. It is believed by the press that Prince Charles will start to perform many of the day-to-day duties of the Monarch, while the Queen will effectively go into "retirement". It was later confirmed by the Palace that Prince Charles will begin to hold the regular audiences with the Prime Minister and other Commonwealth leaders, but also that, while the Queen would be increasing the length of her weekends by two days, she would continue with public duties well into the future. The Queen still meets with the Prime Minister. She has not handed over this duty to the Prince of Wales. Buckingham Palace already gives the Prince access to government papers. For a number of years he has been deputising when the Queen has been unavailable at investitures. The Princess Royal has also done so. He regularly meets more foreign dignitaries. He does not take the place of the Queen in welcoming ambassadors at the Court of St. James's unless he is acting as a Counsellor of State with another senior member of the royal family in the same role.
Unproven media speculation rumoured that her recent trip to Canada and Australia will be amongst her last visits to her overseas realms. Both the Canadian and Australian governments and the Palace have denied it.
In May of 2007 the Queen and Prince Philip made a state visit to the United States, in honour of the 400th anniversary of the Jamestown settlement.
Despite her good health and intention to stay on the throne, some saw the wedding of the Prince of Wales to Camilla as a message from the Queen that, by allowing Charles to marry, she is attempting to ensure that Charles' succession to the throne will be smooth. In 2004, a copy of the Queen's newly-revised funeral plans was stolen. And for the first time, in September, 2005, a mock version of the Queen's funeral march was held in the middle of the night (this was also done once a year after the late Queen Mother turned 80).
If the Queen lives until 21 December 2007, she will become the oldest reigning monarch in both British and the Commonwealth Realms' history, surpassing King George III and Queen Victoria, both of whom died before the age of 82. Should she still be living on 29 January 2012, she would surpass Richard Cromwell as the longest lived British ruler.
Should she still be reigning on 9 September 2015, at the age of 89, her reign will surpass that of Queen Victoria and she will become the longest reigning monarch in British history. If she lives that long, and the Prince of Wales does also, he would be the oldest to succeed to the throne, surpassing William IV, who was 64.
Shortly before her 80th birthday, polls were conducted that showed the majority of the British public wish for the Queen to remain on the throne until her death many feel that the Queen has become an institution in herself.
Constitutionally, the Queen is an essential part of the legislative process of her Realms. In practice, much of the Queen's role in the legislative process is ceremonial, as her reserve powers are rarely exercised.
She does decide the basis on which a person is asked to form a government; that is, whether a government should be formed capable of surviving in the House of Commons the standard requirement or capable of commanding majority support in the House of Commons (i.e. forming a coalition if no one party has a majority). This requirement was last set in 1940, when King George VI asked Winston Churchill to form a government capable of commanding a majority in parliament, which necessitated the wartime coalition. The requirement is normally only made in emergencies or in wartime, and, to date, Elizabeth has never set it.
On three occasions during her reign, Elizabeth has had to deal with constitutional problems over the formation of UK governments. In 1957 and again in 1963, the absence of a formal open mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that following the sudden resignations of Sir Anthony Eden and Harold Macmillan it fell to the Queen to decide whom to commission to form a government. In 1957, Eden did not proffer advice, and so the Queen consulted Lords Salisbury and Kilmuir for the opinion of the Cabinet, and Winston Churchill, as the only living former Conservative Prime Minister (following the precedent of George V consulting Salisbury's father and Arthur Balfour upon Andrew Bonar Law's resignation in 1923). In October, 1963, the outgoing Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan, advised the Queen to appoint Alec Douglas-Home, the Earl of Home.
On the third occasion, in February, 1974, an inconclusive general election result meant that in theory the outgoing Prime Minister Edward Heath, who had won the popular vote, could stay in power if he formed a coalition government with the Liberals. Rather than immediately resign as prime minister he explored the option and only resigned when the discussions foundered. (Had he chosen to, he could have stayed on until defeated in the debate on the Queen's Speech.) Only when he resigned was the Queen able to ask the Leader of the Opposition, the Labour Party's Harold Wilson, to form a government. His minority government lasted for eight months before a new general election was held.
In all three cases, she appears to have acted in accordance with constitutional tradition, following the advice of her senior ministers and Privy Councillors. Indeed, since constitutional practice in the UK is based on tradition and precedent rather than a written set of rules, it is generally accepted that the Sovereign cannot be acting unconstitutionally when acting on the advice of her or his ministers.
Since becoming Queen, Elizabeth spends an average of three hours every day "doing the boxes" reading state papers sent to her from her various departments, embassies, and government offices. Having done so since 1952, she has seen more of public affairs from the inside than any other person, and is thus able to offer advice to her ministers based on her experiences with her multiple previous prime ministers in various countries. She takes her responsibilities in this regard seriously, once mentioning an "interesting telegram" from the Foreign Office to then-Prime Minister Winston Churchill, only to find that her prime minister had not bothered to read it when it came in his box.
British Prime Ministers take their weekly meetings with the Queen very seriously. One Prime Minister said he took them more seriously than Prime Minister's Questions in the House of Commons, because she would be better briefed and more constructive than anything he would face at the dispatch box. Elizabeth also has regular meetings with her individual British ministers, and occasional meetings with ministers from her other Realms, either when she is in the particular country, or the minister is in London.
Elizabeth's relations with her Canadian Prime Ministers have varied throughout the years. Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau seemed to have caused her some concern, perhaps due to his documented antics around the Monarch, such as his sliding down Buckingham Palace banisters, and his famous pirouette behind the Queen, captured on film in 1977, as well as the removal of various royal symbols from Canada during his premiership. Elizabeth was reported, by Paul Martin, Sr., as worrying that the Crown "had little meaning for [Trudeau]". However, as part of the patriation of Canada's Constitution in 1982, orchestrated by Trudeau, the Monarchy was entrenched within Canada's governing system. Following this, Trudeau stated in his memoirs: "I always said it was thanks to three women that we were eventually able to reform our Constitution. The Queen, who was favourable, Margaret Thatcher, who undertook to do everything that our Parliament asked of her, and Jean Wadds, who represented the interests of Canada so well in London... The Queen favoured my attempt to reform the Constitution. I was always impressed not only by the grace she displayed in public at all times, but by the wisdom she showed in private conversation."
Paul Martin, Sr. as well as John Roberts and Mark MacGuigan, who were both sent to the UK in 1980 to discuss the patriation project, noted that during this time the Queen had taken a great and deep interest in the constitutional debate, especially following the failure of Bill C-60, which affected her role as Head of State. They found the Queen "better informed on both the substance and politics of Canada's constitutional case than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats.
The Queen also meets with the First Minister of Scotland. The royal palace in Edinburgh, the Holyrood Palace, once home to Scottish kings and queens such as Mary, Queen of Scots, is now regularly used again, with at least one member of the Royal Family (often the Prince of Wales or Princess Royal) in residence. She also receives reports from the new National Assembly for Wales, and is continually kept abreast of goings on with her other governments. The Government of Wales Act of 2006 means that from 2007 the Queen will have a role in relation to Wales separate to her role as Queen of the UK. She will appoint Welsh Ministers and enact Welsh Orders in Council.
Though bound by convention not to intervene directly in politics, her length of service, and the fact that she has seen a great many prime ministers come and go in all of her realms, combined with her knowledge of world leaders, means that when she does express an opinion, however cautiously, her words are taken seriously. In her memoirs, Margaret Thatcher offered the following description of her weekly meetings with Elizabeth: "Anyone who imagines that they are a mere formality or confined to social niceties is quite wrong; they are quietly businesslike and Her Majesty brings to bear a formidable grasp of current issues and breadth of experience.
During an argument within the Commonwealth over sanctions on South Africa, Elizabeth made a pointed reference to her role as Head of the Commonwealth, which was interpreted at the time as a disagreement with Thatcher's policy of opposing sanctions. However, whatever the differences between them, Thatcher has clearly conveyed her personal admiration for the Queen and believes that the image of animosity between the two of them has been played up because they are both women. In the aforementioned BBC documentary Queen & Country, Thatcher describes Elizabeth as "marvellous" and "a perfect lady" who "always knows just what to say," referring in particular to her final meeting with the sovereign as prime minister. Since leaving office, Thatcher has been awarded a life peerage, the Order of Merit, and the Order of the Garter, which would seem to indicate a basic respect for Thatcher on the part of Elizabeth. (Membership of the two Orders are entirely the personal gift of the Sovereign.) In October, 2005, the Queen and Prince Philip attended Thatcher's 80th birthday party in London.
It was revealed in May of 2007 that the Queen was "exasperated and frustrated" by the actions of then Prime Minister Tony Blair, especially by what she saw as detachment from rural issues, as well as a too casual approach (he requested that the Queen call him "Tony"), and a contempt for British heritage, on his part. She was also rumoured to have showed concern with the overtaxation of the British Armed Forces though overseas engagements, particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as "surprise" over Blair's shifting of their weekly meeting from Tuesday to Wednesday afternoons "surprise" being a genteel word to describe "seriously annoyed." She was supposed to have raised her concerns with Blair repeatedly at these meetings, though she has never revealed her opinions on the Iraq War itself. The relationship between the Queen and her husband and Blair and his wife was also reported to be distant, as the two couples shared little common interests. The Queen did, however, apparently admire Blair's efforts to achieve peace in Northern Ireland.
Titles 21 April 1926 - 11 December 1936: Her Royal Highness Princess Elizabeth of York ; 11 December 1936 - 20 November 1947: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth; 20 November 1947 - 6 February 1952: Her Royal Highness The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh; 6 February 1952 - : Her Majesty The Queen
List of titles and honours of Queen Elizabeth II :
Following Elizabeth's accession, a decision was reached by Commonwealth Prime Ministers at the Commonwealth Conference of 1953, whereby the Queen would be accorded different styles and titles in each of her Realms, reflecting that in each state she acts as the Monarch of that state, regardless of her other roles. Traditionally, Elizabeth II's titles as Queen Regnant are listed by the order in which the remaining original Realms first became Dominions of the Crown: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (original dominion), Canada (1867), Australia (1901), and New Zealand (1907); followed by the order in which the former Crown colony became an independent Realm: Jamaica (1962), Barbados (1966), the Bahamas (1973), Grenada (1974), Papua New Guinea (1975), the Solomon Islands (1978), Tuvalu (1978), Saint Lucia (1979), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (1979), Antigua and Barbuda (1981), Belize (1981), and Saint Kitts and Nevis (1983).