domingo, 30 de junio de 2013

Los Reyes de Francia

Roi des Francs

Charlemagne de Herstal


Charles Ier le Grand
Roi des Francs (768-814), Roi des Lombards (774), Empereur d'Occident (diciembre 800-814)
(Charles de Herstal)
(Charles Charles Ier)
<< ^^
  • Nacido el 2 de abril 747 - Ingelheim, Alsacia
  • Fallecido el 28 de enero 814 - Aix-la-Chapelle (Aachen), Allemagne
  • A la edad de 66 años

Padres

Pépin le Bref de HerstalRoi des Francs ca 715-768
Berthe Au grand pied de Laon ca 720-783

Casamientos e hijos

Casado alrededor de 768 con Himiltrude ?, con

Pépin le Bossu Carolingien ca 769-811
Casado en 770 con Désidérade de Lombardie (Ermengarda) + (répudiée en 771 sans postérité), divorciados
Casado en 771 con HildegardeComtesse de Vintschgau 758-783, conCharles le Jeune Carolingien ca 772-811
Pépin Ier d'Italie ca 773-810
Rotrude Carolingien 775-810
Louis Ier le Pieux Carolingien (Louis Ier le Débonnaire) 778-840
Berthe Carolingien ca 779-823
Casado en 783 con Fastrade de Franconie +794, conAdeltrude Carolingien ca 790
Théotrade Carolingien +844
Casado alrededor de 795 con Liutgarde aus Alemannien +800
Casado con Regina x, con
Drogon Carolingien 801-855

Notas

  • Son of Pippin 'the Short', King of the Franks, and his wife Bertrada, Charles has become known as Charles The Great or Charlemagne for good reasons. His long reign changed the face of Europe politically and culturally, and he himself would remain in the minds of people in the Middle Ages as the ideal king. Many historians have taken his reign to be the true beginning of the Middle Ages. Yet in terms of territorial expansion and consolidation, of church reform and entanglement with Rome, Charlemagne's reign merely brought the policies of his father Pippin to their logical conclusions.Charlemagne became the subject of the first medieval biography of a layman, written by Einhard, one of his courtiers. Using as his literary model, the word portrait by Suetonius of the Emperor Augustus, Einhard described Charlemagne's appearance, his dress, his eating and drinking habits, his religious practices and intellectual interests, giving us a vivid if not perhaps entirely reliable picture of the Frankish monarch. He was strong, tall, and healthy, and ate moderately. He loved exercise: riding and hunting, and perhaps more surprising, swimming. Einhard tells us that he chose Aachen as the site for his palace because of its hot springs, and that he bathed there with his family, friends and courtiers. He spoke and read Latin as well as his native Frankish, and could understand Greek and even speak it a little. He learned grammar, rhetoric, and mathematics from the learned clerics he gathered around him, but although he kept writing-tablets under his pillow for practice (he used to wake up several times in the night) he never mastered the art of writing. He was able to make such a mark upon European history because he was a tireless and remarkably successful general. He concluded Pippin's wars with Aquitaine, and proclaimed his son Louis king in 781; the one serious defeat he suffered was in these wars, at Roncevaux in the Pyrenees, a defeat one day immortalised in 'The Song of Roland' and later 'chansons de geste'.
    He added Saxony to his realm after years of vicious campaigning. Towards the end of his reign he moved against the Danes. He destroyed the kingdom of the Avars in Hungary. He subdued the Bretons, the Bavarians, and various Slav people. In the south he began the reconquest of Spain from the Arabs and established the Spanish March in the northeast of the peninsula.
    But perhaps his most significant campaigns were south of the Alps, in Italy. Pope Hadrian appealed to Charlemagne for help against Desiderius of the Lombards. The campaign in the winter of 773-4 was short and decisive. Desiderius was exiled, and Charlemagne, 'King of the Franks', added 'and the Lombards' to his title. Later he appointed his son Pepin as King of Italy.
    Popes were still not free of all their enemies. In 799 a rival party of Roman aristocrats ambushed Leo III, intending to gouge out his eyes and cut off his tongue. Leo fled to Charlemagne, who was at Paderborn preparing for another war against the Saxons. Charlemagne ordered Leo III to be restored, and in 800 he came to Rome himself. On Christmas Day 800, in St. Peter's, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans.
    KARL DER GROßE
    Das Heilige Römische Reich Deutscher Nation
    Holy Roman Empire of German Nation The history of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation began on christmas in the year 800 with the coronation of Karl (Karl the Great) from the house of the Karolingers to the Roman emperor which was executed by the pope Leo III. Perhaps since the year 1030 was in use the the official denomination Imperium Romanum for the empire which was changed about 1160 into Sacrum Imperium. In the year 1254 the empire was for the first time named Sacrum Imperium Romanum. The denomination Holy Roman Empire of German Nation (Sacrum Imperium Romanum Nationis Germanicae) is in use since the 15th century and should probably verbalize the cultural German predominance in the empire. The title of the supreme monarch was initially "king". The emperor's honour could only be achieved with a coronation by the pope. Since the 13th century the kings of the empire were electet by seven electors. Since the year 1438 these kings came always from the house of the Habsburgs solely only one exemption. The coronation by the pope was made for the last time in 1530, because since 1519 the elected and crowned German king automaticly used the title "elcted Roman emperor". In the year 1804 the German emperor Franz II. of Habsburg adoped the title "emperor of Austria" and layed down the German emperor's crown on 6th of August in 1806 after foundation of the Rhine Confederation. Therewith expired the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation.

Louis Ier le Pieux


Louis Ier le Débonnaire
Roi d'Aquitaine (781-814), Associé à l'Empire (813), Empereur d'Occident (814-840)
(Louis Carolingien)
<< ^^
  • Nacido el 16 de abril 778 - Chasseneuiel
  • Fallecido el 20 de junio 840 - Ingelheim, Allemagne
  • A la edad de 62 años

Padres

Charlemagne de Herstal (Charles Ier le Grand)Empereur d'Occident 747-814
HildegardeComtesse de Vintschgau 758-783

Casamientos e hijos

Casado alrededor de 794 con Ermengarde de Hesbaye +818, con

Alpaïde /794-852
Lothaire Ier de Germanie ca 795-855
Hildegarde (Rotrud) ca 800-ca 841
Pépin Ier ca 803-838
Louis Ier le Germanique (Louis II le Germanique) ca 806-876

Casado en 819 con Judith de Bavière ca 800-843, con


Gisèle 820-874
Charles II le Chauve 823-877

Notas

BIOGRAPHYLouis was born on 16 April 778, the son of Emperor Charlemagne and Hildegardis. About 794 he married Irmingard/Ermengard, daughter of Ingram, Graf in Haspengau. Between 795 and 806 they had three sons and a daughter, all of whom would have progeny. Irmingard died in 818, and in the following year he married Judith, daughter of Welf, Graf in Bayern und Schwaben, Graf von Altdorf. They had a son and daughter who would both have progeny.

As his father's only surviving son, Louis was crowned emperor by his father in 813 without assistance from the clergy. In 816 the pope anointed him. In 817 he issued the 'Ordinatio Imperii' that effectively divided the Empire between his three sons. However this was not the only reason for the disintegration of the Carolingian Empire. High offices had become hereditary and so less subject to the emperor's favour. As well, the Vikings began raiding the Empire more frequently.

Whereas Charlemagne had been a Frankish warrior, Louis saw himself as a servant of the Church. As a result, where the papal elections had previously required Imperial approval this was no longer the case under the rule of Louis.

In 817 he brutally suppressed his nephew Bernard of Italy. However an indication of his guilt over the brutality is that in 821 he pardoned those involved in the uprising, only to have this interpreted by the Frankish nobles in 822 as a sign of weakness.

By now he had lost control over both Church and nobility. With four sons he was also plagued by dynastic problems. His second wife, Judith, wanting the largest part of the empire for her son, joined forces with Louis' sons Ludwig 'the German' and Pippin, against Lothar the eldest son. Two factions developed in the empire, one wanting to keep it united and the other to continue the Frankish custom of dividing lands between all sons.

In 829 Judith persuaded Louis to set aside his settlement of 817 and include her son Charles in the partition of the Empire. However, Ludwig and Pippin, jealous of Charles' portion, joined forces with Lothar their eldest brother, and in 830 rebelled against their father.

The eldest three sons, supported by Pope Gregory IV, defeated their father in 833. Lothar was restored as emperor designate and Louis was forced to perform a humiliating penance. However, Ludwig and Pippin were still dissatisfied and again took up arms. In 838 Pippin died, followed in 840 by Louis. Finally in 843 at Verdun the Frankish tradition triumphed and the empire was divided between the three surviving sons.

Roi de France

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